Microbial Testing Internship Part III

     The final internship of my program involved working with the Quality Control Manager to conduct microbial testing of MUIH manufactured botanicals.  The purpose of this internship was to create a repeatable and cost-effective method for aseptic botanical testing outside of a formal laboratory.  This method would provide a low-cost testing option that would allow small scale herbal businesses and manufacturers to meet part of the requirements for GMP compliance without significant financial hardship.

     The internship work involved several different components. First, was reviewing and updating the documentation from previous internships to ensure completeness and applicability.  This process began at home where I modified material to make it relevant to the tinctures being tested. During the time at the Dispensary doing the actual testing, the SOPs and documents had to be examined and re-examined, with feedback and lessons learned incorporated into the final product.    

     The next component of the internship was the specimen inoculation in the MUIH Dispensary. The inoculation required following the steps outlined in the revised SOP with careful attention to detail to ensure an aseptic environment.  Carrying out the botanical testing according to the procedures required a degree of skill, training, and competency that I was able to leverage from previous trimesters’ work in botanical testing.  I found myself prepared for the procedures involved, particularly with the measuring of ingredients and using the pipettes according to aseptic techniques.

     The inoculation itself required measuring out exact dilutions of the tinctures, keeping all the materials well organized, and ensuring exact and accurate application of the inoculation solution. The materials were then taken home and observed over several days before they were analyzed for microbial growth.  

 

     The final part of the internship involved working with other interns to determine the costs of all materials and man hours in order to carry out the botanical testing. These estimates needed to be clear and accurate to provide a picture of long-term requirements.  

 

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Medicinal Herbs to Support Blood Sugar Management in Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes

This past week I had an assignment for school that challenged me to write a professional white paper on a topic of my choosing within the scope of herbal medicine.  I immediately knew I wanted to focus my energy on diabetes due to a recent diagnosis of a close family member.  I wanted to look at the symptoms of diabetes and the research available on medicinal herbs that could potentially serve as adjunctive, complimentary, or alternative treatment for symptom management so that I could suggest this family member discuss these herbs with his primary care provider.

I have attempted to take a large amount of information and present it in a way that is easily digestible.  If you are interested in the research but find this a bit too technical or dry, you are welcome to scroll all the way to the bottom to the conclusion.

Background

Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by elevated blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) and glucose present in the urine (glycosuria).  Insulin, a hormone produced in the pancreas, regulates blood sugar by removing glucose (sugar) from the blood, allowing it to enter cells throughout the body. It is important for other metabolic processes, as well. When there is insufficient insulin, or the body is not reacting to the insulin that is present, the levels of glucose in the blood begin to rise.  Sufficiently high levels of blood glucose result in the body burning alternative sources of energy, like fats, leaving their metabolites, ketones, in the blood. Metabolic changes can result, impairing the body’s ability to handle fats, leading to a buildup of fat throughout their arteries. Ultimately this can contribute to serious health problems such as: blindness, kidney failure, heart attack, and stroke.  

There are two types of diabetes: Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) and Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM).  IDDM, often referred to as Type I, is usually characterized by significant lack of insulin production. There are many theories about the cause of the disease, however it is not entirely understood. Type I diabetes must be treated with dietary modifications and exogenous insulin supplementation.

NIDDM, Type II, also involves a deficiency of insulin, however it is much less severe. Sometimes the insulin is being produced, but no longer effective.  Treatment for this type of diabetes does not require insulin since the body is still producing it. Common treatment involves the use of hypoglycemic agents, glucosidase inhibitors, dietary modifications, and preparations designed to delay absorption of glucose.   

Present Case

Herbal medicine has been used to treat diabetes for thousands of years.  There are over one thousand plants that have been used historically for treating symptoms of diabetes.  Plants and plant extracts act in a variety of specific and non-specific ways, with the secondary metabolites from the plants either directly lowering glucose levels in the blood while others impact glucose metabolism.  Metformin, the first drug created for the treatment of Type II diabetes, was developed after the discovery that goat’s rue, Galega officinalis, contained a guanidine alkaloid that potentiated the activity of insulin. That alkaloid, galegine, is structurally similar to the synthetic metformin (Bone, 2003).

Testing of plants for hypoglycemic activity is primarily focused on the bioactivity of compounds related to glucose homeostasis  The mechanisms of actions vary widely, with some effects appearing immediately, and others requiring longer periods of time. Many plants have demonstrated beneficial actions related to symptoms of diabetes other than just blood glucose regulation, however they are beyond the scope of this paper.

Clinical studies have demonstrated that certain medicinal plants can stimulate insulin secretion, augment various receptors involved in the process, prevent insulin resistance before it develops, up-regulate or promote translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4), inhibit glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion and advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation. The number of herbs that lower blood sugar levels is extensive and prohibitively long.  

A widely used Ayurvedic herb, “gurmar”, or gymnema, (Gymnema sylvestre) was described in ancient texts as useful when urine is sweet and has been documented as an antidiabetic medication for over 2000 years. The name gurmar means “sugar destroyer” in Hindi.  Controlled trials utilizing Gymnema sylvestre found that a preparation of 400 mg/day of Gymnema extract significantly lowered blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin over the course of 18 to 20 minutes, resulting in levels unparalleled by the group receiving conventional treatment. The authors concluded that the herb may promote insulin production and act as a regenerative agent, to include in damaged pancreatic tissue. It is suggested that these actions are due to the gymnemic acids (El-Houri, et al., 2014). A recent randomized, double-blind controlled trial was unable to demonstrate antidiabetic effects, but did have statistically significant reductions in body weight (Martínez-Abundis, 2016).

Another traditional remedy with thousands of years of use in Ayurvedic medicine is Coleus forskohlii.  The traditional use was for cardiovascular and digestive disorders, however it is a powerful herb for endocrine function because it has the unique ability to increase production of cyclic AMP (cAMP, adenylate cyclase), an important messenger used by many hormones and neurotransmitters (Bone & Mills, 2013).  While it does not cross into the cell, it is used for intracellular signal transduction, triggering changes in the cell’s function.  There are numerous physiological and biological effects from elevated levels of cAMP, however relative to the metabolic system, cAMP can trigger increased insulin production, stimulates the release of glucagon, stimulates the breakdown fat and inhibits glucose uptake.  Since obesity and adipose tissue play a role in insulin resistance, this herb could play a powerful role as both a hypoglycemic and a fat loss aid at a dosage of at least 50mg/day of forskolin, a diterpene extracted from the plant. This dosage was found to be effective in several clinical trials and studies. The results of another study found that an oral dose of 250mg/day for 12 weeks lowered body fat content in obese men, raised their testosterone levels, and increased their bone mass (Godard, Johnson, & Richmond, 2005).  Another herb that has been found to have similar impact in promoting fat loss is licorice Glycyrrhiza glabra.

Clinical trials support the use of fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum, leaf or seed, at 5g/day for improved blood glucose.  It is also reported to promote pancreatic cell renewal (Kalailingam et al., 2014).  Nopal, or prickly pear cactus Opuntia ficus-indica, has been used as an indigenous remedy for diabetes for hundreds of years. In vivo studies have shown that Opuntia lowers has promise in blended whole plant form, juice extracts, and isolated constituents. It has been found to both lower blood glucose and increase insulin levels (Leem, Kim, Hahm, & Kim, 2016).  The sulfur-containing compounds, allyl propyl disulfide and allicin, found in onions Allium cepa, and garlic Allium sativum, exhibit hypoglycemic effects by competitive interaction with insulin.

Cinnamon has been lauded for its support in blood sugar  management. There are conflicting studies on the efficacy and particular species responsible for the hypoglycemic action.  A meta-analysis found that 1-6 grams of powdered cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum and Cinnamomum cassia) had positive impact on blood sugar levels, however more studies are needed.  There is insufficient quality clinical date to evaluate bitter melon Momordica charantia, however one of its hypoglycemic peptides, Polypeptide-p, also known as “plant insulin” has been clinically demonstrated to be effective for humans when administered subcutaneously.

Other promising medicinal herbs with strong supporting clinical research are Ganoderma lucidum Reishi mushroom and Fucus vesiculosus, a brown algae seaweed known as “bladderwrack” in western herbal medicine. Both are nutritional powerhouses.

Conclusion:

Medicinal plants can effectively serve as an adjunctive treatment or natural alternatives  to commercial oral hypoglycemic medications.  There is insufficient clinical data to support each of the thousands of plants that have been used in traditional medicine systems for blood sugar management.  There is sufficient clinical research to support the use of some of these, such as: Gymnema sylvestre, Coleus forskohlii, licorice Glycyrrhiza glabra, and fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum, bladderwrack Fucus vesiculosus, and reishi mushroom Ganoderma lucidum, among others not covered in this paper.

 

References:

Bach, E., Hi, E., Martins, A., Nascimento, P., & Wadt, N. (2018). Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Ganoderma lucidum in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats. Medicines,5(3), 78. doi:10.3390/medicines5030078

Baskaran K., Kizar B, Shanmugasundaram K, et al. Antidiabetic effect of a leaf extract from Gymnema sylvestre in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients.  J. Ethnopharmacol. 1990;30(3):295-300.

Bone, K. (2003). A clinical guide to blending liquid herbs: Herbal formulations for the individual patient. St. Louis: Churchill Livingstone.

Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principles and practices of phytotherapy: Modern herbal medicine (2nd ed.). Edinborough: Churchhill Livingstone Elsevier.

El-Houri, R. B., Kotowska, D., Olsen, L. C., Bhattacharya, S., Christensen, L. P., Grevsen, K.,  Christensen, K. B. (2014). Screening for Bioactive Metabolites in Plant Extracts Modulating Glucose Uptake and Fat Accumulation. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine,2014, 1-8. doi:10.1155/2014/156398

Godard, M. P., Johnson, B. A., & Richmond, S. R. (2005). Body Composition and Hormonal Adaptations Associated with Forskolin Consumption in Overweight and Obese Men. Obesity Research,13(8), 1335-1343. doi:10.1038/oby.2005.162

Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical herbalism: the science and practice of herbal medicine. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press.

Kalailingam P., Kannaian B., Tamilmani E., Kaliaperumal R. (2014). Efficacy of natural diosgenin on cardiovascular risk, insulin secretion, and beta cells in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Phytomedicine 21 1154–1161. 10.1016/j.phymed.2014.04.005

Khanna P., Jain S. C., Panagariya A., Dixit V. P. (1981). Hypoglycemic activity of polypeptide-p from a plant source. J. Nat. Prod. 44 648–655. 10.1021/np50018a002

Leem K.-H., Kim M.-G., Hahm Y.-T., Kim H. (2016). Hypoglycemic effect of Opuntia ficus-indicavar. saboten is due to enhanced peripheral glucose uptake through activation of AMPK/p38 MAPK pathway. Nutrients 8 800

Martínez-Abundis, E. (2016, July 13). Effect of Gymnema Sylvestre on Metabolic Syndrome and Insulin[Scholarly project]. In Clinicaltrials.gov. Retrieved from https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02370121

Cannabis Controversy

IMG_20180830_111633

Several weeks back I was doing a little Saturday morning reading before leaving for the workshop I was teaching that morning.  I was looking at the FDA’s website for any current “drug” news related to the herbal products industry (FDA definition of a drug includes all the teas, tinctures, etc that I brew at home to help with my own health)*.  I saw a release from June (2018) about cannabis.  It was in no way related to my workshop but a glaring contradiction caught my attention. I noticed that in June the FDA approved a drug with the isolated cannabidiol compound for use in seizures, but Cannabis sativa (marijuana) is still listed as a Schedule I drug.  Huh?

*The FDA is a fee for service organization that has become very expensive and prohibitive for smaller companies. Without the money they can’t gain the legal approval to bring their products to market, making it a bit of a hustle.  That said, they are our regulatory body and have a mission to protect consumers from dangerous drugs.  I always tread very carefully here so I will go no further with this commentary, other than to say that our construct is possibly not as unbiased and scientifically based as we would believe, however it is what we have.

Cannabis isn’t one of the most dangerous plants out there but it seems to be the most politicized (at least in the U.S). The secondary metabolites in Datura stramonium and Salvia divinorum have more of a hallucinogenic effect in humans than cannabis but they aren’t illegal and grow prolifically in North America. From a strictly botanical perspective, it makes no sense.

Additionally, certain strains of Cannabis have been used as the source of hemp, which was, according to The People’s History,

one of the most significant crops for mankind up until this last century…

Hemp was probably the earliest plant cultivated for textile fiber. Archaeologists found a remnant of hemp cloth in ancient Mesopotamia (currently Iran and Iraq) which dates back to 8,000 BC. Hemp is also believed to be the oldest example of human industry.

Hemp, which has historically had over 25,000 diverse uses ranging from paints, printing inks, varnishes, paper, Government documents, bank notes, food, textiles (the original ‘Levi’s’ jeans were made from Hemp cloth), canvas (artists canvases were used by the great masters) and building materials still remains banned in this country whose Declaration of Independence was written on hemp paper. With modern technical developments, uses have increased to composite boards, motor vehicle brake and clutch pads, plastics, fuels, bio-diesel and Eco-solid fuel. In fact anything that can be made from a hydrocarbon (fossil fuel) can be made from a carbohydrate, but the strong lobbies still manage to keep the growth of this useful crop banned and the public disillusioned.

The full article on the history of hemp is absolutely worth your time to read if you have any interest in this topic.

Between the botany and the history of the plant, I was perplexed and began wondering what it is that got this one plant to the point of being so controversial.  Why are we even having national conversations about this? Why is it illegal? From my opinion, it looks a bit like reading about Prohibition. (Note that this is not a discussion about addiction or crime, both of which can occur with any substance on Earth and merit their own discussions.)

Until recently, my knowledge of marijuana was limited to the “just say no to drugs” training in my schools in the eighties, the demonization by my family, church, and employers, and the military members that were kicked out for popping positive on drug tests because they smoked weed on leave. Having worked with DEA agents in my past life, I was well aware that crimes have been committed and people are in prison because of the illegal marijuana industry.  What I didn’t understand was why.  Let the research commence.

First, what’s the history?

Cannabis was commonly used in medicines prescribed by physicians in the United States and was not really given much attention as a plant any more special than many others. With the post Mexican Revolution wave of immigration, Mexicans brought with them the habit of smoking “marihuana”. Anti-immigration backlash began and by the 30’s FDR was pressuring lawmakers to outlaw the substance. The Marihuana Tax Act of 1937 was passed, not criminalizing the use, but levying heavy fines on anyone selling the product. The American Medical Association (still the largest group of medical doctors in the United States) was completely against the legislation because they would be losing cannabis, a medically important drug. The first marijuana related arrests in the U.S. resulted in 2 men being sentenced to 18 months and 4 years at Leavenworth for failure to pay the tax. Scratching my head and thinking that the potheads have been right all these years. It really was about money and control all along. We are just now, nearly 100 years later, getting back to the point where we use cannabis as medicine, except this time many doctors are against it.

The FDA* had recommended several Schedule I research licenses to the DEA. Those were not approved at that time but there have been updates since that morning.  (Read all about it here).  Additionally, I was unaware that the DEA had taken steps to increase legal cannabis production back in 2016.  This is an excerpt from the article I just linked.

In 2016 the DEA approved a process to allow more cultivators to grow cannabis for research. More than 20 facilities have filed applications to become licensed cultivators, but the Justice Department, under Jeff Sessions, has blocked the DEA from processing the applications.

Cannabis was commonly used in medicines prescribed by physicians in the United States and was not really given much attention. With the post Mexican Revolution wave of immigration, Mexicans brought with them the habit of smoking “marihuana”. Anti-immigration backlash began and by the 30’s FDR was pressuring lawmakers to outlaw the substance. The Marihuana Tax Act of 1937 was passed, not criminalizing the use, but levying heavy fines on anyone selling the product. The American Medical Association (still the largest group of medical doctors in the United States) was completely against the legislation because they would be losing cannabis, a medically important drug. The first marijuana related arrests in the U.S. resulted in 2 men being sentenced to 18 months and 4 years at Leavenworth for failure to pay the tax on the plant, not for possession or use of the plant itself.

Meanwhile, the traditional cultivation of hemp, dating back thousands of years, was taking a huge hit.  Under the pressure of multiple lobbyists, for example, DuPont, maker of petroleum based synthetic textiles (competitor), the government instituted enormous taxes on hemp, eventually banning it altogether later that same year (1937).  Interestingly, the U.S. government continued to import hemp due to its extensive, plant-based products that were useful in numerous industries. Just a few years later, the government doled out special grants to farmers to grow hemp to support the World War II war-time production.  The ban remained after the war.

We are just now, nearly 100 years later, getting back to the point where we can legally use cannabis as medicine (30 states plus Washington, D.C. at the time of this post), except this time many doctors are still against it. Despite the fact that hemp (mostly a plant carbohydrate) can be used for most of the same things as the less environmentally friendly fossil fuels, it remains banned.


After reading through all this research, I can’t help but notice some parallels to current events. Heavy waves of immigration, backlash, politicians playing on fears and passing legislation that benefits corporate interests more than the constituents… From drugpolicy.org,

The demonization of the cannabis plant was an extension of the demonization of the Mexican immigrants. In an effort to control and keep tabs on these new citizens, El Paso, TX borrowed a play from San Francisco’s playbook, which had outlawed opium decades earlier in an effort to control Chinese immigrants. The idea was to have an excuse to search, detain and deport Mexican immigrants.

That excuse became marijuana.

This method of controlling people by controlling their customs was quite successful, so much so that it became a national strategy for keeping certain populations under the watch and control of the government.  Sound familiar?  Would love to hear your thoughts below.

 

The Truth About DIY Laundry “Detergent”

A recent horrifically nasty discovery about DIY laundry soap prompted today’s soapbox – see what I did there 😉  I warn you – it’s gonna be long.  That said, if you have ever made or considered making – your own laundry detergent, please take the time to read this.  If at the end you disagree, rock on. I did my part and warned you.

The Background

Like many people, I want to do the best I can for my family and the environment. That means that I often find myself asking Dr.Google how to DIY everything under the sun so I can limit the toxic chemicals contributing to our toxic load.  I’ve tried my hand at everything from candles to deodorant with varying rates of success.  Homemade household cleaners were one of the first things I tried and remain one of my favorites since many are effective, economical, and easy.

From DIY cleaners to essential oils, there was SO MUCH bad information out there.  So much misinformation being promulgated by well-meaning mommy bloggers with huge followings.  I had bought into plenty of it because I didn’t know any better.

I made my first DIY laundry detergent in 2013. That was also the year I banned paper towels and commercial cleaners for an entire year.  Needless to say, when I jumped on the crunchy bandwagon, I went hardcore. I took it to the extreme and wanted to DIY everything because DIY is better, right? Maybe. Maybe not.

The other thing that happened in 2013 is that, at the end of the year, I walked away from a halfway completed Master of Science in Telecommunications.  I just didn’t love it anymore and my husband encouraged me to pursue my passion.  A month later, in January of 2014, I started a Master of Science with American College of Healthcare Sciences (ACHS).  I took two semesters of graduate courses (to include one graduate level Aromatherapy course and two in Anatomy & Physiology) before realizing that I really needed to take some foundational undergraduate courses before taking higher level courses about theoretical application.  I spent another year with ACHS, completing programs in Natural Products Manufacturing, Aromatherapy, and Herbal Retail Management.  After ACHS I went on to a Master of Science at Maryland University of Integrative Health (MUIH) in Therapeutic Herbalism.  I cannot speak highly enough about those programs.  Why is it relevant to this post (and brought up in a lot of my discussions)?  It’s because that training included very detailed education on herbs, fixed oils, and essential oils, their chemistry, their actions (based on chemical constituents), and understanding clinical studies and science.  It didn’t necessarily make me an expert on science but it definitely gave me the basics so I know when to ask a chemist, biologist, botanist, or medical professional for clarification.

And now, here we are.

I recently started making soap. It’s my current obsession because it is a blend of exact chemistry and artistry. I decided to make another batch of laundry detergent, using one of my pure bars of coconut oil soap.  In theory that is the height of crunchiness.  I pulled up the recipes I had previously used.  Here is the top rated hit Google delivers for the “DIY laundry detergent” search.  It calls for a bar of soap, borax, and washing soda. This is another top hit (#3). Same ingredients.  #2 contains the same 3 ingredients, plus baking soda, Oxi-clean and scent.  I have tried all three of these and liked them.  My clothes seemed mostly clean. I was willing to lower my standards a bit given the frugality and how much it appealed to my preferences for “natural” products.

While I liked them, I wasn’t in love with them.  They never completely got rid of the smell in our sweaty athletic attire and I was frankly way overcommitted (I know you’ve been there, too) and just didn’t have time to figure out the problem.  We’ve been using commercial detergent since I started my Master’s with MUIH in 2016.  With my new soap fully cured, I was ready to give it a go again.

This time around, with a better understanding of chemistry, the recipes didn’t make sense.  I did some more research and found this article.  I reached out to a friend of mine, a kick ass chemist with a master’s degree and a job working with chemicals all day.  I asked her to fact check the article since I am not a chemist. She verified almost everything in the article as true and then explained why these recipes may not work, and provided a whole lot of info.  I realized that, despite my best intentions, we had been wearing DISGUSTING clothing, that was neither clean or sanitary.  I was so grossed out that I decided to immediately write a post about this to warn all my well meaning friends.

So what’s the problem? There are actually a lot of reasons, scientifically, that this doesn’t work.

The details.

The bar of soap is the cleaning agent in these recipes.  The only cleaning agent in most of them. Soap is a combination of oil or fat with lye molecules that chemically reacted with water molecules in a process called saponification (that leaves no lye behind). Soap is designed for non-porous surfaces and requires friction (scrubbing) to rinse it away.  We will come back to the soap.

Borax, (B4Na2O7)

borax
From PubChem

Also known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate. It is easily converted into boric acid, however that is a different substance than what is sold in Borax (a salt).  It has a lot of different biochemical uses (to include as a buffer), however in laundry it is used to soften hard water (if you are lucky enough not to have hard water you may not care about this part at all).  “Hard water” means that your water has a pH of over 8.5 (pH means “potential of hydrogen” if you didn’t know – okay fine, I admit it, I didn’t know).  The neutral range for water is 6.5 to 8.5.  The goal is to bring your water to as close to neutral as possible to prolong the life of your clothing.

Borax has a pH of 9.3.  It has two salt molecules and is also used to soften water, because the salt molecules (the Na) bind with the minerals in hard water, like Ma and Ca. This chemical couple is an insoluble substance that can be rinsed away (same concept as the oil from the soap trapping dirt and grime). For borax to dissolve and rinse away, you need heat. Agitation is not enough. Cold water will not work.

Washing Soda, (Na2CO3 ),

washingsoda
From PubChem

is also known as soda ash due to burned plant ashes being one source of the substance. It is an alkali chemical used as a water softener or degreasing agent. It is a salt of carbonic acid. The salt (Na) is the part that softens water. Washing soda has a pH of 11. That alkalinity makes it wonderful for removing grease stains from garage floors, tough fabrics, etc.  This is also supposed to help soften the water in the exact same way as borax.  The problem is that it requires a LOT of rinsing to rinse away. If not, it leaves an insoluble substance redeposited right on your clothes.  One rinse cycle is not going to remove this stuff in a standard washing machine.  Washing soda does not dissolve easily.  You should use either washing soda or borax.  You don’t need both, that’s silly and not very economical.  For hard water, I would personally choose Borax (lower pH = less caustic) over washing soda and just use warm to hot water.

Oxi-clean, is used for stain-boosting or presoaking.  It is actually not found in most “natural” recipes. It is included because it is found in the 2nd most popular recipe (per Google search as of 8/16/2018) for “DIY Laundry Detergent”.  While I personally think that this works quite well as a presoak, it is neither natural or “safe”.  The EWG gives it a big fat “F” while the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (link here) says,

Danger. Causes skin irritation. Causes serious eye damage. Toxic to aquatic life.

If you care about Flipper or your eyeballs, this is maybe not for you.

Scent is pretty self-explanatory. It is usually either in the form of fabric softener crystals or essential oils. Do I even need to discuss the synthetic fragrance in fabric softener chemicals?  Let me just point you to my post on candles and let’s call this topic done. Essential oils as scent?  Okay – this is a topic that I am most definitely qualified to talk about.

agriculture-05-00048-g008a

Some essential oils work quite well to pretreat (lift) certain types of stains (grease). In the recipe itself? They may make your clothes smell good.  They are unlikely to have any other effect in your laundry, no matter what you have been told.  Think about the size of your washing machine, the amount of water in it, and then how much essential oil you are adding.  If someone quotes “studies” showing how antimicrobial they are, go read the study, look at the quantity used and the application method.  It is an absolute distortion of facts to cite those studies as a scientific basis for eos in your laundry.

If you are using essential oils for scent alone (because they are a far better alternative than fragrance), you may be totally happy with the outcome of the aroma after you wash your clothes.  If you use water that is hot enough to kill the pathogens lurking on your clothes (staph infection, anyone?) the heat will damage or destroy the essential oils. If you use a dryer, there is almost no chance the aroma will make it through the entire process intact.  If you are using them for smell alone, this doesn’t make much economical sense.  You would be better served putting them on/in a dryer ball where some would survive the process and leave your clothes smelling nice. Here is a lengthy, detailed scientific review of how light/temperature affect the structure of essential oils, and potential side effects of transdermal absorption of these mutated molecules.  My opinion is that if you find a combo that works for you and makes your clothes smell nice, it is far better to go that route than to use cheaper synthetic fragrance.  Just know that you are degrading any potential therapeutic benefit so the aroma can be quite expensive.

And now… the biggest reason for this blog post. 

Let’s talk soap.  Soap is designed to trap bacteria (with the oil) and allow you to rinse it off with water. The water is critical because you can actually remove a lot of germs with just water and friction, but you remove nothing with just soap. Let’s start simple.

Consider the quantity.  If one bar of soap goes in the total recipe and you are using one or two tablespoons of “detergent” per load, how much soap is actually in that? It’s fractions.  Maybe a 1/4 of a tablespoon of cleaner for an entire load of laundry? Would you use a drop of liquid dish soap for an entire sink full of dishes? That tiny quantity would not be enough to clean anything. Gross!

So let’s say you have figured out the right quantity to make sure there is enough cleaner in each load. Let’s say you even figured out the proper ratio of pH balancers (all the Borax and washing soda talk above) for your exact water to make the soap effective and prevent it from turning into something insoluble that leaves a film (this is the EXACT thing that we call “soap scum” in our showers).  Here is the critical thing I just didn’t understand: laundry soap is designed for washing boards, tubs, or washbasins, with the cleaning powered by humans through mechanical energy (good, old fashioned scrubbing!).  Modern washing machines do not generate that much friction, which is why laundry detergent exists.

The terms are often used interchangeably but they are NOT the same thing.  Soap can be made at home with a basic understanding of chemistry (hello, I do it!). Detergent requires a chemistry lab. Both contain surfactants but behave very differently in water.

Detergent, developed in labs when plant oils and animal fats were scarce during World War I, is free rinsing.  The minerals in hard water do not react with the detergent like they do with the soap.  If you have an energy efficient washer, worse, a front loader (like me), the agitation will not come close to the friction needed for the water to wash away the oil from the soap (that has trapped the gross stuff).  Ivory soap, pure coconut oil soaps, Castile soap are all still soap, no matter what you read on the blogosphere.

This concept is really, really important.  If I confused you or you don’t believe me, you can (and should!) read this chemistry site, this blog, or even this one. that explain the difference between soap and detergent and why they are NOT the same thing.

Regardless of the name, all of the DIY recipes are for laundry soap, not detergent.

Any remaining delusions I had about my ability to make laundry detergent were shattered after I realized that every single recipe uses soap and is therefore laundry soap, not a detergent.  Next came the reality that we had worn dirty clothes for the months (year?) I made our “detergent”.  We wore bacteria-laden clothing, with pollen potentially still trapped in the fibers of my highly allergic husband’s clothing, in the name of cheap and eco-friendly DIY cleaners for my expensive eco-friendly HE front-loading washer.

So think about what is on your clothes after multiple washes with your DIY “detergent”.  Do you wash your clothes on cold cycle? Cold water won’t dissolve the soap as well, either.  You may just be leaving chunky residue on your clothes and washer.  If you are still arguing at this point, I feel sorry for your bacteria and soap film covered family.

Let that all sink in.  If you’ve made your own “detergent” you may be feeling a bit queasy. If you are really brave and have a strong stomach, there is a photo gallery to show what was stripped off of clothes that were cleaned with homemade “detergents”.  It’s nasty. Don’t say I didn’t warn you first. Once you understand soap versus detergent, you know that these recipes do not work in a washing machine.

What can you do?

  1. You could wash your clothes by hand using laundry soap.
  2. You could wash your clothes in a washing machine with laundry soap and pretend you never read this article.
  3. You can try to tinker with the recipe. If you have soft water you MIGHT be able to use a DIY recipe and multiple rinse cycles to generate the friction to rinse off the soap oils.  When doing multiple rinse cycles you are using more energy but you aren’t polluting Mother Nature with the chemicals in detergent so the eco-friendly argument might still be in your favor. You would definitely have control of the chemicals you are using. You might even have clean clothes maybe.
  4. You can suck it up, like me, and buy commercial detergent. There are some “safe” ones out there if you do your research.

MUIH Microbial Analysis Experiment Internship Part III

 

At last, we have reached the end of this series on the “internship” that is no longer an internship. If you didn’t read the series, you should start at Part I.  The point of this blog series is to illustrate some of the work that I have done and things that I have learned. Since this is a real, ongoing, study involving accredited universities (University of Maryland and Maryland University of Integrative Health), I am not disclosing all materials and methods, analysis, or results.

This last portion of the experiment I have been participated in involved testing botanical extracts against various bacteria, yeast, and mold.  Specifically, I got to test hydro-alcoholic extracts of Echinacea purpurea (commonly known as Purple Coneflower or Echinacea), of varying strengths to see if it inhibited growth of the bacterias, yeast, and mold.  To do this, I created dilutions using 3 different Echinacea tinctures to inoculate, incubate, and interpret results from 3M Petrifilms.

I learned aseptic lab techniques while carrying out the study discussed in Part II of this series. This time around, it was even more important because I was handling petrifilm loaded with yeast and mold spores, and one with E.Coli (yuck!).   Having the experience gained from the first round made it much easier to confidently carry out the steps while limiting exposure.  Some of the additional daily tasks involved taking ambient temperatures, monitoring samples, counting colonies, and reporting results.

I won’t go into all the nerdy details since more will be written (and it’s really the school’s place to properly publish the study and get credit for it).  For now here are some pics of what I’ve been learning and doing.

 

Rosemary Monograph

Rosemary

img_20180714_081450

Nomenclature    

Rosmarinus officinalis

Family

Lamiaceae (formerly Labiatae)

Parts Used

Leaves, flowers, and essential oil.

Identification of Genus/Species

 

Part Identification
Stem Shrub with scaly branches and bark. Grows to 3 feet.
Leaves 1 to 2 inch long needle-like evergreen leaves.
Flowers Flowers are small and pale blue or white.
Taste Strong, oily, bitter.
Odor Strong and pleasant. Camphor-like.

Cultivation

As a Mediterranean native, Rosemary does best in warm, sunny, and dry spots. It can be propagated by seed, cutting, or layering.   

Collection

To get the most essential oil, harvest the upper parts before they flower. The flowers and upper parts can be harvested in early Spring and Summer.  The leaves and flowers should be dried in the shade.

Constituents

The leaves and flowers contain an essential oil made up of borneol, camphor, 1,8 cineole, linalool, terpenes, and borneol esther.

The leaves also contain tannins, resin, carboxylic acid, and minerals such: as calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, and potassium.

Actions

Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antispasmodic, antiseptic, astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, hepatic, hypertensive, nervine sedative, rubefacient, stimulant, and tonic.

Medicinal Use

The essential oil is thought to be responsible for the majority of the Rosemary’s therapeutic actions. Rosemary has many uses for the hair and skin: hair growth, dandruff, ulcers, sores and wounds.

Rosemary is used to support colds, headaches, fevers, poor memory, rheumatism, and sprains.  Due to its antispasmodic properties, Rosemary is useful for cramps and spasms. It has a general tonic effect on the circulatory system and may be helpful with varicose veins.

Contraindications & Side Effects

Rosemary contains two toxic constituents, borneol camphor and pinene. Camphor in high doses can aggravate asthma and epilepsy.

Rosemary should be avoided during the first trimester of pregnancy. Rosemary should not be administered to children under the age of four.

Rosemary should be tested via a skin patch test prior to topical application.

Follow dosage recommendations for the essential oil carefully. Rosemary can impact blood pressure.

 

Dosage

Doses can be taken three to four times a day.

Infusion: 3 to 5 tablespoons

Tincture: 5 to 20 drops

Essential Oil: ½ to 3 drops

 

References

Balick, M. J. (2014). 21st century herbal: A practical guide for healthy living using nature’s most powerful plants. V. Mattern (Ed.). New York: Rodale, 341-345.

Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principles and practice of phytotherapy modern herbal medicine. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier.

Easley,T. and Horne,S. (2016). The modern herbal dispensatory: A medicine-making guide. Berkeley, CA. North Atlantic Books

Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical herbalism: the science and practice of herbal medicine. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press.

Petersen, D. (2015). Herb 201 Herbal Studies. Portland, OR:  American College of Healthcare Sciences

Weiss, R., & Fintelmann, V. (2000). Herbal Medicine (2nd ed.). Stuttgart: Thieme

Lemon Balm Monograph

Lemon Balm

img_20180714_081613

Nomenclature

Melissa officinalis

Family

Lamiaceae (formerly Labiatae)

Parts Used

Leaves

Identification of Genus/Species

Part Identification
Stem Similar to others in the Lamiaceae family, the stem is square.
Leaves Leaves are slightly hairy, broad and ovate. Low lying leaves may be heart shaped.  They omit a lemony aroma.
Flowers Flowers bloom in summer and are small and hooded, in white or lemon color.
Taste Pleasant, lemony, and mildly spicy.
Odor Lemony

Cultivation

Lemon Balm is an easy to grow perennial herb that will reach up to three feet high and two feet wide.  It is hardy to zone 3 and prefers fertile soil with a slightly acidic pH. Supplementing the soil with different nutrients will impact the chemical composition and essential oil yield.

Lemon Balm can be propagated by seed, cuttings, or division. Lemon Balm grows best with regular watering.  It will grow in sun or partial shade.

Collection

The entire above ground herb is harvested.  Lemon balm should be harvested by hand in the early morning, after the dew dries.  The leaves should be dried immediately.

Constituents

Essential oil contains citronellal, citral, linalool, and other monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Also contains tannins, flavonoids, and bitters.

The herb contains caffeic and rosmarinic acids.

The chemical composition of the oil is similar to the pheromone that helps worker bees locate their colonies.

Actions

Antidepressant, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, carminative, diaphoretic, and nervine sedative.

Medicinal Use

Due to its mild sedative action, Lemon Balm is useful for concentration, depression, sleep and stress.   Lemon Balm is also indicated for gastrointestinal disorders and nervous disorders and is especially prescribed for children with these conditions.

The essential oil has antiviral properties so it is used for cold sores and shingles.

Contraindications & Side effects

No known safety concerns.

Dosage

One to three times daily.

Infusion: 1 cup

Liquid Extract 2 to 4 millimeters

Tincture: 2 to 6 millimeters

References

Balick, M. J. (2014). 21st century herbal: A practical guide for healthy living using nature’s most powerful plants. V. Mattern (Ed.). New York: Rodale, 341-345.

Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principles and practice of phytotherapy modern herbal medicine. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier.

Easley,T. and Horne,S. (2016). The modern herbal dispensatory: A medicine-making guide. Berkeley, CA. North Atlantic Books

Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical herbalism: the science and practice of herbal medicine. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press.

Petersen, D. (2015). Herb 201 Herbal Studies. Portland, OR:  American College of Healthcare Sciences

Weiss, R., & Fintelmann, V. (2000). Herbal Medicine (2nd ed.). Stuttgart: Thieme