Disclaimer: This monograph was created as a deliverable for my HRB 690 Internship with the National Arboretum. This monograph illustrates research, analysis, and writing skills. I was very proud of my work, however, I received feedback that I needed to use more rigorous academic sources as the basis for the monograph. I have chosen to include it here to illustrate the need for continual growth and improvement. As a result of that feedback, I developed a deeper understanding of the rigor and integrity involved in constructing an herbal monograph.
Lamiaceae (formerly Labiatae)
Identification of Genus/Species
|Stem||Similar to others in the Lamiaceae family, the stem is square.|
|Leaves||Leaves are slightly hairy, broad and ovate. Low lying leaves may be heart shaped. They omit a lemony aroma.|
|Flowers||Flowers bloom in summer and are small and hooded, in white or lemon color.|
|Taste||Pleasant, lemony, and mildly spicy.|
Lemon Balm is an easy to grow perennial herb that will reach up to three feet high and two feet wide. It is hardy to zone 3 and prefers fertile soil with a slightly acidic pH. Supplementing the soil with different nutrients will impact the chemical composition and essential oil yield.
Lemon Balm can be propagated by seed, cuttings, or division. Lemon Balm grows best with regular watering. It will grow in sun or partial shade.
The entire above ground herb is harvested. Lemon balm should be harvested by hand in the early morning, after the dew dries. The leaves should be dried immediately.
Essential oil contains citronellal, citral, linalool, and other monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Also contains tannins, flavonoids, and bitters.
The herb contains caffeic and rosmarinic acids.
The chemical composition of the oil is similar to the pheromone that helps worker bees locate their colonies.
Antidepressant, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, carminative, diaphoretic, and nervine sedative.
Due to its mild sedative action, Lemon Balm is useful for concentration, depression, sleep and stress. Lemon Balm is also indicated for gastrointestinal disorders and nervous disorders and is especially prescribed for children with these conditions.
The essential oil has antiviral properties so it is used for cold sores and shingles.
Contraindications & Side effects
No known safety concerns.
One to three times daily.
Infusion: 1 cup
Liquid Extract 2 to 4 millimeters
Tincture: 2 to 6 millimeters
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Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principles and practice of phytotherapy modern herbal medicine. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier.
Easley,T. and Horne,S. (2016). The modern herbal dispensatory: A medicine-making guide. Berkeley, CA. North Atlantic Books
Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical herbalism: the science and practice of herbal medicine. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press.
Petersen, D. (2015). Herb 201 Herbal Studies. Portland, OR: American College of Healthcare Sciences
Weiss, R., & Fintelmann, V. (2000). Herbal Medicine (2nd ed.). Stuttgart: Thieme