Pheromones

Hola! To conclude our posts on aromatherapy and how smells work, I am going to break down pheromones for you. Hold tight, it might get a bit science-y.  Feel free to leave questions or comments at the end.

Last time, we briefly mentioned pheromones.  Here’s a refresher:

    In humans, our olfactory systems are rather elementary compared to other animals but it is still important for gathering information.  Odors and pheromones are translated into those electrical signals, conveying messages to the brain that elicit some type of response.  Odors are detected in the nose in the nasal olfactory epithelium (OE).  

    Animals detect pheromones via the VNO, the vomeronasal organ.  Some scientists believe that the VNO is an inactive organ in humans and that humans simply do not communicate via chemosignals.   Others know that scientific evidence proves this very concept.  Numerous tests have shown that when exposed to the smell of mens’ sweat, women’s physiological responses demonstrated statistically significant changes, classifying the sweat, or components of it, as pheromones.

 

So, what are pheromones?

Pheromones, like other hormones, are at the core, single compounds or small sets of chemicals secreted by animals.  Pheromones are set apart from other hormones in that once secreted, they act outside the body to affect the behavior of other animals, rather than just the animal secreting the pheromone.

There are several types of pheromones and each is secreted to trigger different types of behavior.  Pheromones are often misunderstood and considered to be related only to sex.  They are secreted for various other reasons:  alarm, bonding, food, marking territory, communicating that another animal should back off, etc.

Pheromones are detected by animals through an organ in the nose named the VNO (Vomeronasal Organ).  The VNO is connected to the brain via the hypothalamus.  This is how animals “receive” the communication.  Humans have the same 4 types of pheromones as other animals: releasers, primers, signalers, and modulators.  

  • Releaser pheromones are the ones most commonly thought to communicate sexual desire to another human, however there isn’t a lot of current evidence on the reliance of these pheromones in sexual attraction.  There is some evidence showing the involvement of releaser pheromones in guiding an infant to a lactating mother.
  • Primer pheromones are linked to the reproductive system.  They can impact puberty, menstruation, and pregnancy. This would include the lengthening, shortening, or synchronization of menstrual cycles based on who the menstruating woman was around, male or female, and how often.
  • Signaler pheromones are informative and communicate a certain type of information between humans. The most commonly cited example is the one of a mother being able to identify her newborn by scent alone.  Ovulating women may also signal when they are fertile.
  • Modulator pheromones communicate that a bodily function of another human needs to be altered in some way.  This can be anything from mood to sexual desire.

If you made it this far, thanks for hanging in there! You are now equipped with a whole lot of nerdy knowledge about smells work and why they matter.  Feel free to leave your comments below.